Energy Production from Biomass with the E-M-F-System

Band 32

Yang Liu

Kurzübersicht

In a general sense, the main concern of this thesis is large-scale bio-ethanol production, particularly the attempt to find a convenient and suitable way to use its by-product known as stillage. Using stillage to produce energy is the main focus subject of this thesis.
ISBN: 978-3-944101-57-6
Veröffentlicht: Januar 2016, 1. Auflage, Einband: Broschur, Abbildung und Tabellen: Zahlreiche Tabellen und Abbildungen, viele davon farbig, Seiten 270, Format B5, Gewicht 0.6 kg
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Yang Liu

Energy Production from Biomass with the E-M-F-System

Band 32 der Schriftenreihe des Bauhaus-Instituts für zukunftsweisende Infrastruktursysteme (b.is). 17. Jahrgang 2016.

2016. Format B5. Hardcover. 270 Seiten. Zahlreiche Tabellen und Abbildungen, viele davon farbig. ISBN 978-3-944101-57-6. Preis 32,80 Euro.

RHOMBOS-VERLAG, Berlin 2016

Gutachter:

 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eckhard Kraft, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany

Prof. Dr. Katia Lasaridi, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Londong, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany

 

Abstract

 In a general sense, the main concern of this thesis is large-scale bio-ethanol production, particularly the attempt to find a convenient and suitable way to use its by-product known as stillage. Using stillage to produce energy is the main focus subject of this thesis. Large amounts of available by-product stillage with high organic content have been of great interest for many researchers in the search for a better way to utilize it. It is supposed that stillage used as pro- posed in this study would create more energy efficiency and more positive environmental effects compared with the traditional and popular utilization of stillage as animal feed.
A system was developed during this study for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer from biomass left after the production of bio-ethanol via the processes of digestion and composting. This system has been named as the E-M-F- System. Stillage and stillage digestate are the main points of connection in these three biological processes. Currently, some related research is being con- ducted in the combination of bio-ethanol production with biogas production, and biogas production with fertilizer production. In Prasad Kaparaju’s study, the thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wheat straw stillage was investigated. Results showed that higher methane yields of 324 ml/g VS added were obtained at stillage concentrations of 12.8 g VS/l [95]. Wilkie, A.C. has done the most research on sugar, starch and cellulosic-based stillages under thermophilic and mesophilic digestion conditions. He has summarized the whole production chain from biomass planting and harvesting to stillage’s further utilization to find sustainable and economically viable solutions [4]. The concept of combin- ing all these three processes was proposed in some previous studies; however they did not go as far as detailing the methods or testing the concept [99]. This study aims to address that gap and carry out a basic analysis of feasibility and evaluation of a combined system, the proposed E-M-F-System.
In this study, two ways were utilized in parallel to analyze the feasibility of the E-M-F-System, firstly through theoretical analysis and secondly through labora- tory research. Subsequently, a rigorous and thorough balance analysis assessment including mass, energy and CO2-eq. perspectives was carried out for this system. In order to make further utilization of this system to produce bio-energy easier and more accessible, a case study using sweet potato in China was undertaken as an example. Furthermore, a tool box was compiled in the hopes of creating an innovative platform for the convenient utilization of this system for other projects and the results of assessment and analysis was compiled into an excel spreadsheet.


Overall, through the study of this E-M-F-System, the results reveal that, this system could be of great importance to the current global energy situation. This system has its own particular advantages and strengths. Similar assessment or analysis of it could be easily adopted in other projects due to its broad utilization feasibility and possibility. Moreover, further attempts or important modifications related to the E-M-F-System can be carried out according to the needs of specified projects. This biomass-energy-environment system could be the basis of future studies on the combination of biological processes.

 

The Editor

The Bauhaus-Institute for Infrastructure Solutions (b.is) aims to strengthen the cooperation of the university´s research teams in Urban Water Management and Sanitation, Biotechnology in Resources Management and Urban Energy Systems in the areas of teaching, research and consultancy work. This encompasses the further development of degree programmes, joint doctorate colloquia and joint research and development activities.
Currently the chair of urban water management and sanitation, the chair of biotechnology in resources management and the chair of urban energy systems as well as the honorary professorship for urban infrastructure management are members of the institute. The chair of construction economics is associated with the institute. The b.is will increase its visibility in infrastructure research. Education and research are geared to the comprehensive model of sustainable material and energy flows and resource economy oriented systems, which are the linkage of the institute’s chairs.

Professur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/professuren/siedlungswasserwirtschaft/

Professur Biotechnologie in der Ressourcenwirtschaft
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/professuren/biotechnologie-in-der-ressourcenwirtschaft/

Junior-Professur Urban Energy Systems
http://www.uni-weimar.de/Bauing/energy/index.html

Honorarprofessor Dr.-Ing. U. Arnold
http://www.ahpkg.de/index.php?id=93


Content

Acknowledgements         I
Content          III
Table list          VII
Figure list          X
Abbreviation and definition      .. XII
Abstract          XV

1 Introduction         1
1.1 Background of the study - energy and environmental problems        . 1
1.2 Purpose and significance of the study      2
1.3 Research methods of the study – E-M-F-System     4
1.4 Anticipative study results      . 5
1.5 Prospects of the study        5

2 Biomass          7
2.1 Biomass definition and characteristics      7
2.2 General biomass utilization: biomass for energy     8
2.3 Biomass species and quantity potential     10
2.4 Biomass utilization for the E-M-F-System     14
2.4.1 Characteristics and utilization of biomass in E-M-F-System   14
2.4.2 Characteristics and utilization of stillages from bio-ethanol production         21
2.4.3 Characteristics and utilization of digestate from biogas production         28
2.5 Conclusions of biomass utilization in the E-M-F-System    31

3 Background and technical basis for the proposed E-M-F-System         33
3.1 Bio-ethanol production        33
3.1.1 Background and definition of bio-ethanol production technology        33
3.1.2 Classification and characteristics of basic bio-ethanol production process       40
3.1.3 Development of the technology      41
3.2 Biogas production        42
3.3 Bio-fertilizer production      . 45
3.4 Conclusion of the technologies for this system     50
3.4.1 Full combination of these three processes    50
3.4.2 Problems of theoretical analysis      51

4 Laboratory research        53
4.1 Raw materials         54
4.1.1 Raw materials for anaerobic digestion experiment   54
4.1.2 Raw materials for aerobic composting experiment   56
4.2 Experimental reactors        57
4.3 Analysis methods        62
4.3.1 Anaerobic digestion analysis methods     62
4.3.2 Aerobic composting analysis methods     65
4.4 Results and analysis        66
4.4.1 Anaerobic digestion results and analysis from 1 l reactor  ..67
4.4.2 Anaerobic digestion results and analysis from 60 l reactor  77
4.4.3 Aerobic composting results and analysis from 30 l reactor  79
4.4.4 Aerobic composting results and analysis from Dewar Reactor  85
4.5 Conclusions of the research       88

5 E-M-F-System assessment       91
5.1 Mass balance analysis of the E-M-F-System     95
5.1.1 Mass balance during the course of bio-ethanol production  95
5.1.2 Mass balance during the course of biogas production    100
5.1.3 Mass balance during the course of composting     103
5.2 Energy balance analysis of the E-M-F-System     108
5.2.1 Energy balance during the course of bio-ethanol production   109
5.2.2 Energy balance during the course of biogas production  .. 116
5.2.3 Energy balance during the course of composting    120
5.3 CO2-eq. balance analysis of the E-M-F-System     129
5.3.1 CO2-eq. balance during the course of bio-ethanol production   129
5.3.2 CO2-eq. balance during the course of biogas production    133
5.3.3 CO2-eq. balance during the course of composting    134
5.4 Comparison of this E-M-F-System      136
5.5 Conclusion of the E-M-F-System balance analysis    141
5.6 Plants study in reference to the utilization of the E-M-F-System       .. 145
5.6.1 E-M-F plants using grains as feedstock    .. 147
5.6.2 E-M(-F) plant using sugar containing material as feedstock   154
5.6.3 Conclusion of the study of the E-M-F-System utilization plant   155

6 Tool box for the implication of the E-M-F-System    157
6.1 Purpose of the use of tool box     .. 157
6.2 Basis of the tool box        158
6.3 Instructions for using the tool box      160
6.4 Manipulation of the tool box       161
6.5 Conclusion         164

7 Case study – implementation of the E-M-F-System in China   165
7.1 Situation and development of the E-M-F-System in China   165
7.2 Suitable input materials for this system world-wide    169
7.2.1 Suitable input materials for this system in China    169
7.2.2 Suitable raw materials for this system in other countries   171
7.3 Sweet potato as case study for this system     173
7.4 Conclusion of the E-M-F-System utilization in China    176
7.5 Case study of sweet potato in tool box    .. 177
7.6 Conclusion         179

8 E-M-F-System - Innovation key points and conclusions  .. 181
8.1 Consideration and improvements of the system   . 181
8.2 Innovation key points        182
8.3 Conclusions         183

9 References         187
Appendix          203
Attachment        . 219
Instruction of the tool box      .. 231


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