COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROAD SAFETY AT U-TURNS ON 4-LANE DIVIDED HIGHWAYS IN THAILAND

Volume 36 of the Schriftenreihe des Bauhaus-Instituts für zukunftsweisende Infrastruktursysteme

Inder Pal Meel

Kurzübersicht

Thailand is an emerging country, highly motorised and is among the countries having a high death rate due to road traffic injuries. Each crash entails economic cost, not to mention the social cost of pain, grief, and suffering of families of the victims. It also has an adverse impact on the resources of the government.
To access road safety level and to improve safety strategies, the road crash data management system (reporting, recording and analysis) is the primary key.

ISBN: 978-3-944101-45-3
ISSN: 1862-1406
1. Aufl. 2017. Auflage, Einband: Hardcover, Abbildung und Tabellen: zahlr., z.T. farbig , Seiten 192, Format B5 170x240, Gewicht 0.45 kg
Lieferzeit: 2-3 Tage
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32,00 €

9783944101453

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Inder Pal Meel

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROAD SAFETY AT U-TURNS ON 4-LANE DIVIDED HIGHWAYS IN THAILAND

A thesis submitted in partial ful lment of the requirements for the degree of
Doktor-Ingenieur (Dr.-Ing.)

EU-Asia Road Safety Centre of Excellence (RoSCoE)
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-University, Weimar, Germany

Mentor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Brannolte
Co-Mentor: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Richter
Co-Mentor: Assoc. Prof. Kunnawee Kanitpong

Volume 36 of the "Schriftenreihe des Bauhaus-Instituts für zukunftsweisende Infrastruktursysteme (b.is)"
18th issues (2017).

192 pages. Format B5. Hardcover. Numerous tables and illustrations, many of them colored. Price: 32,00 €.
ISBN 978-3-944101-45-3, RHOMBOS-VERLAG, Berlin 2017

Herausgeber Band 36:

Bauhaus Universität Weimar
Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen
Professur Verkehrssystemplanung
Leitung:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Uwe Plank-Wiedenbeck
Marienstr. 13D
99423 Weimar
Tel.: +49 (0) 36 43/58 44 72
Fax: +49 (0) 36 43/58 44 75
E-Mail: uwe.plank-wiedenbeck[at]uni-weimar.de

Die Professur Verkehrssystemplanung ist Mitglied des Bauhaus-Instituts für zukunftsweisende Infrastruktursysteme und befasst sich in Forschung und Lehre mit Planung, Bau und Betrieb von Verkehrsanlagen und -systemen.

Editor of the monograph series:

Bauhaus-Institute for Infrastructure Solutions (b.is)
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/institute/bis/

The Bauhaus-Institute for Infrastructure Solutions (b.is) aims to strengthen the cooperation of the university´s research teams in Urban Water Management and Sanitation, Biotechnology in Resources Management and Urban Energy Systems in the areas of teaching, research and consultancy work. This encompasses the further development of degree programmes, joint doctorate colloquia and joint research and development activities.
Currently the chair of urban water management and sanitation, the chair of biotechnology in resources management and the chair of urban energy systems as well as the honorary professorship for urban infrastructure management are members of the institute. The chair of construction economics is associated with the institute. The b.is will increase its visibility in infrastructure research. Education and research are geared to the comprehensive model of sustainable material and energy flows and resource economy oriented systems, which are the linkage of the institute’s chairs.

Members of the b.is:

Professur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/professuren/siedlungswasserwirtschaft/

Professur Biotechnologie in der Ressourcenwirtschaft
http://www.uni-weimar.de/de/bauingenieurwesen/professuren/biotechnologie-in-der-ressourcenwirtschaft/

Junior-Professur Urban Energy Systems
http://www.uni-weimar.de/Bauing/energy/index.html

Honorarprofessor Dr.-Ing. U. Arnold
http://www.ahpkg.de/index.php?id=93

About the book:

The Challenge and Opportunity

Thailand is an emerging country, highly motorised and is among the countries having a high death rate due to road traffic injuries. Each crash entails economic cost, not to mention the social cost of pain, grief, and suffering of families of the victims. It also has an adverse impact on the resources of the government.
To access road safety level and to improve safety strategies, the road crash data management system (reporting, recording and analysis) is the primary key. The current evolution status of Thai road crash data system is almost at the beginning phase and has been suffering from the issues of availability, reliability and quality. Therefore, it is utmost necessary to accelerate the process of the evolution of crash data management system. About 3 to 5 decades ago, the high-income-countries also encountered similar challenges and, it took a long time and several phases of evolution to develop a robust, capable and reliable crash data management system. The transfer of experience, knowledge and technology from the high-income-countries to Thailand could not be only a good option to save time, evolution phases and valuable resources, but also it is important to save the valuable human lives by early planning and execution of reliable and effective road traffic safety strategies.
For this study, an alternative, surrogate, subjective to human judgement and challenging approach was adopted due to the above mentioned issues of the road crash data management system in Thailand.


Keywords: Accident (traffic), Accident outcome, Accident risk, Collision, Conflict observation, Conflict point, Conflict zone, Conflict severity, Crash, Evasive action/maneuver, Event severity continuum, Hourly Conflict Rate, Injury accidents, Light traffic conflict, Loon, Median, Near-accident, Non-serious conflict, Police reported accidents, Post-Encroachment Time (PET), Required braking rate (RBR), Safety, Safety hierarchy, Serious conflict, Severity hierarchy, Shoulder, TCT (Traffic Conflicts Technique), Time-to-Accident (TA), Time-to-Collision (TTC), Traffic conflict, Traffic safety, Upstream, Validity


Contents

Acknowledgments    i
Table of contents    ii
List of Tables    vii
List of Figures    x
Glossary of Terms    xi

1    Introduction    1
1.1    General Background    1
1.2    Function of U-turns on Thai Highways    3
1.3    Need for the Study - RoSCoE    3
1.3.1    Road Safety at U-turns    4
1.4    Road Safety Measurement and Analysis    8
1.4.1    Crashes Based Safety Analysis    8
1.4.2    Near-crash Events as an Alternative Approach    9
1.4.3    Traffic Conflict Technique (TCT)    10
1.5    Pilot Study: Thai Crash Data Management System    11
1.6    Research Objectives    11
1.7    Scope of Study    12
1.8    The State of Science    13
1.9    Outline of the Thesis    14
1.10    Research Approach and Design    15

2    Literature Review    16
2.1    General    16
2.2    Road Safety and Socio-economic Costs    16
2.3    Safety at Thai U-turns    17
2.4    Layout Designs of U-turn and Road Safety    18
2.4.1    Spacing of Median Openings    18
2.4.2    Classification of U-turns, their Advantages and Disadvantages . 18
2.4.3    Median Acceleration Lanes    23
2.4.4    Loons or Outer-widening    24
2.5    Road Safety Measurement Using Historical Crash Data    24
2.5.1    Road Safety Analysis and Crash Costing    24
2.5.2    Limitation of Using Historical Crash Data    27
2.6    Traffic Crash Data: Availability, Quality and Reliability    28
2.7    Surrogate Safety Measures    31
2.7.1    Traffic Conflict Techniques (TCT) as an Alternative Approach . 32
2.7.2    Traffic Event Hierarchy    35
 
2.7.3    Validity and Reliability of TCT    36
2.8    Traffic Conflict Indicators and Severity Measurement    38
2.8.1    Time to Accident / Speed (TA/Speed)    38
2.8.2    Time To Collision (TTC)    39
2.8.3    Post Encroachment Time (PET)    40
2.8.4    Strengths and Weaknesses of Conflict Indicators    41
2.9    Severity of Traffic Events    42
2.9.1    Crash Severity Grading (Category) and Severity Indexes    42
2.9.2    Conflict Severity Grading and Severity Indexes    43

3    Methodology    52
3.1    General    52
3.1.1    Classification of U-turns on Thai Highways    52
3.1.2    The Zones at U-turns    52
3.2    Pilot Study: Evaluation of Crash Data in Thailand    55
3.2.1    Results of Pilot Study    56
3.3    Conflict Based Investigation    57
3.3.1    Traffic Conflicts at U-turns    58
3.3.2    Conflict Type, Category and Situation at U-turns    60
3.3.3    Conflict Points at U-turn Zones    63
3.3.4    Exclusion of Turning Zone Conflicts    64
3.3.5    Product of Through and Turning Volumes (PTTV)    64
3.3.6    Selection of Conflict Indicators    68
3.3.7    Hourly Conflict Numbers    69
3.3.8    Operating Speed    71
3.4    Safety Assessment Using the Severity Conflict Index (SCI)    72
3.4.1    Severity Conflict Index    72
3.5    Safety Assessment Using the Relative Conflict Index (RCI)    73
3.5.1    Relative Speed and Speed Adjustment Factor (fspd)    74
3.5.2    Conflict Orientation Factor (COF )    75
3.5.3    Level of Conflict (LC)    76
3.5.4    Relative Conflict Index (RCI)    76
3.6    Comparison of the Conflict Indexes    79

4    Data Collection    80
4.1    Selection of Study Locations    81
4.2    Layout Geometry of a U-turn    82
4.3    Functional Length of Auxiliary Lanes    83
4.4    Time Duration for Field Data Recording    84
4.5    Traffic Volumes    84
4.6    Operating Speed    84
4.7    Traffic Conflict Data    86
4.7.1    Identification of Traffic Conflicts    86
4.7.2    Conflict Type    87
4.7.3    Conflict Severity    87
4.7.4    Conflict Category    87
 
4.7.5    Classification of Involved Vehicles    88
4.7.6    Marking of a Conflict Situation    88

5    Data Compilation and Results    90
5.1    Traffic Volumes    90
5.2    Product of the Through and Turning Volumes (P T T V )    94
5.3    Safety Assessment Using the Severity Conflict Index (SCI)    95
5.3.1    Classification of the Observed Conflicts Using the Severity-level
of Situation    95
5.3.2    Calculation of the Average Hourly Conflict Number Using the Severity Level of Situation    95
5.3.3    Calculation of Severity Conflict Index es    96
5.4    Safety Assessment Using Relative Conflict Index (RCI)    102
5.4.1    Operating Speed    102
5.4.2    Hourly Traffic Conflicts Classified using the Type of Conflict Situation    103
5.4.3    Calculation of LC    104
5.4.4    Calculation of Relative Conflict Number (RCN )    106
5.4.5    Calculation of Relative Conflict Index (RCI)    107


6    Analysis of Results: Safety Assessment    110
6.1    Traffic Volumes    110
6.1.1    Hourly Traffic Volume    110
6.1.2    Percentage Share of Turning Volume    110
6.1.3    Percentage Share of the HCV in Turning Volume    110
6.2    Operating Speed    111
6.3    Geometry and Dimensions of U-turns’ Components    111
6.4    Conflict Points at U-turns    112
6.5    Safety Assessment Using the Severity Conflict Index (SCI)    112
6.5.1    Severity Conflict Index es for Downstream Zones    112
6.5.2    Severity Conflict Index es for Upstream Zones    113
6.5.3    Severity Conflict Index es for U-turns    113
6.6    Safety Assessment Using Relative Conflict Index (RCI)    114
6.6.1    Relative Conflict Index es for Downstream Zones    114
6.6.2    Relative Conflict Index es for Upstream Zones    115
6.6.3    Relative Conflict Index es the for U-turns    116
6.7    Secondary Finding: Inappropriate Driving Behaviour    117
6.7.1    Inappropriate Driving Behaviour of Thai Motorcyclists    117
6.7.2    Effect of the Application of Directional Island    117
6.7.3    Inappropriate Overtaking Maneuver Using the U-turn Infrastructures    120

7    The    Challenge, Conclusions and Recommendations    122
    7.1    The Challenge and Opportunity . ..    . 122
    7.2    Conclusions . . .    . 122
    7.3    Limitations and Recommendations . . 125
 
Bibliography    126
Publications Arising from the Thesis    131
Appendices    132
Appendix A  Location and Geometric Data of U-turns    133
A.1    Location of U-turns    133
A.2    Geometric Data of U-turns    134
A.3    The Standard Drawing of U-turns of the DoH, Thailand    136
Appendix B  Sample data-sheet for traffic count    137
Appendix C  Traffic flow at U-turns    138
C.1    Recorded traffic volume data    138
C.2    Hourly Traffic Volume Data    141
C.3    Traffic Flow Charts    144
C.3.1    Traffic flow at UT-1 (A)    144
C.3.2    Traffic flow at UT-1 (B)    145
C.3.3    Traffic flow at UT-2 (A)    146
C.3.4    Traffic flow at UT-2 (B)    147
C.3.5    Traffic flow at UT-3 (A)    148
C.3.6    Traffic flow at UT-3 (B)    149
C.3.7    Traffic flow at UT-4 (A)    150
C.3.8    Traffic flow at UT-4 (B)    151
C.3.9    Traffic flow at UT-5 (A)    152
C.3.10    Traffic flow at UT-5 (B)    153
C.3.11    Traffic flow at UT-6 (A)    154
C.3.12    Traffic flow at UT-6 (B)    155
C.3.13    Traffic flow at UT-7 (A)    156
C.3.14    Traffic flow at UT-7 (B)    157
C.3.15    Traffic flow at UT-8 (A)    158
C.3.16    Traffic flow at UT-8 (B)    159
Appendix D  An Observed Serious Conflict Situation    160
Appendix E  Calculation of Relative Conflict Number    161
Appendix F   Data Tables for Severity Conflict Indexes    164
F.1   Observed conflict numbers    164
Appendix G  Photographs from Field Investigations    167
G.1 Photos of inappropriate driving behaviour, illegal parking and directional islands    167

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