Planning for an Ageing Population

Experiences from Local Areas in the United Kingdom

Christine Meyer

Kurzübersicht

Die Mehrzahl britischer Gemeinden ist mit einer alternden Bevölkerung konfrontiert. Küstengebiete und ländliche Räume weisen besonders hohe Anteile älterer Bevölkerungsgruppen auf, da sie als Altersruhesitz bevorzugt werden. Anhand dreier Fallstudien untersucht der Band den lokalen Umgang mit der alternden Bevölkerung. Es werden insbesondere involvierte Akteure und lokale Formen der Governance analysiert sowie lokale Lernprozesse rekonstruiert. Auf dieser Grundlage werden Herausforderungen und Perspektiven der Stadtentwicklung für eine alternde Bevölkerung diskutiert. (Sprache: Englisch)
ISBN: 978-3-941216-66-2
Veröffentlicht: Dezember 2011, Band 56 der Reihe "IÖR Schriften", herausgegeben vom Leibniz-Institut für ökologische Raumentwicklung e. V. (IÖR) . Auflage, Einband: Broschur, Abbildung und Tabellen: Zahlr. Abbildungen und Tabellen, zum Teil farbig, Seiten 266, Format DIN B5, Gewicht 0.55 kg
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Planning for an Ageing Population

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Christine Meyer
Planning for an Ageing Population


Experiences from Local Areas in the United Kingdom

266 Seiten. Format 168 x 240. Broschur. Zahlr. Abbildungen und Tabellen, zum Teil farbig. Preis: 40,50 Euro
ISBN: 978-3-941216-66-2
Rhombos-Verlag, Berlin 2011

Band 56 der Reihe "IÖR Schriften", herausgegeben vom
Leibniz-Institut für ökologische Raumentwicklung e. V. (IÖR)
Direktor: Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Bernhard Müller
Weberplatz 1,  01217 Dresden
Tel.: (0351) 4679-0, Fax.: (0351) 4679-212
E-Mail: info@ioer.de, Homepage: http://www.ioer.de


Zugl. Dissertation
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades rerum naturalium
(Dr. rer. nat.) vorgelegt von Dipl.-Geogr. Christine Meyer

Gutachter:
Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Bernhard Müller
Technische Universität Dresden / Fakultät Fort-, Geo- und Hydrowissenschaften,
Fachrichtung Geowissenschaften / Lehrstuhl Raumentwicklung
http://www.ioer.de/ioer-im-ueberblick/beschaeftigte/mueller/


Prof. Dr. Gerald Wood
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster
https://www.uni-muenster.de/Geographie/mitarbeiter/wood.html

About the book

The majority of local areas in the UK are faced with an ageing population. Popular retirement destinations in coastal and more rural areas are particularly affected. The cross-cutting implications of these demographic shifts extend from service provision to the design of housing and neighbourhoods. The British government has responded to these challenges dynamically, such as by issuing strategic guidance for local areas. As one example, this guidance promotes the concept of the “Lifetime Neighbourhood”, an inclusive living environment for all generations.
How do local actors plan for population ageing? To answer this question, the book provides in-depth empirical knowledge which stems from qualitative research in three case study areas: North Tyneside, Poole and Wealden. The results focus on the involved actors and local forms of governance as well as local learning processes. Moreover, central challenges and perspectives of planning for an ageing population are discussed. Apart from conclusions for academic discussion, the book provides recommendations for practitioners at the local and national levels. Beyond that, it puts forward what other countries can learn from the British experience.


Zum Buch

Die Mehrzahl britischer Gemeinden ist mit einer alternden Bevölkerung konfrontiert. Küstengebiete und ländliche Räume weisen besonders hohe Anteile älterer Bevölkerungsgruppen auf, da sie als Altersruhesitz bevorzugt werden. Anhand dreier Fallstudien untersucht der Band den lokalen Umgang mit der alternden Bevölkerung. Es werden insbesondere involvierte Akteure und lokale Formen der Governance analysiert sowie lokale Lernprozesse rekonstruiert. Auf dieser Grundlage werden Herausforderungen und Perspektiven der Stadtentwicklung für eine alternde Bevölkerung diskutiert.

Foreword

The Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development (IOER) together with the Technical University of Dresden and the Academy for Spatial Research and Planning (ARL) established the Dresden Leibniz Graduate School (DLGS) in 2008. The DLGS is one of the 18 graduate schools jointly founded to date throughout the country by the Leibniz Association (WGL) and universities. The start-up was financed under the “Pact for Research and Innovation” by the German Government and the Länder. It is mean­while fully funded by the participating institutions.
Four faculties of the Technical University of Dresden participate in the DLGS: the Forest, Geo, and Hydro Sciences, Architecture, Economics, and Philosophy (Sociology). They constitute the interdisciplinary environment for Graduate School scholarship holders. All first supervisors, including professors jointly appointed by the IOER and the TU Dresden, come from one of these four faculties.
Every two years, the DLGS awards eight doctoral fellowships for research into subjects relevant to the spatial sciences. They are advertised internationally. 25 per cent of the first cohort were from abroad and 50 per cent of the second. External doctoral students can also be accepted as in an associate capacity.
Scholarship holders and associate doctoral students are offered a comprehensive, struc­tured programme. Courses, workshops, and summer schools are offered that address the theory and methodology of science and topics of relevance for dissertations and advisory bodies provided to discuss the progress made by each student in depth. In addition, all scholarship holders and associate doctoral students have the opportunity to take part in national and international conferences.
The key topic of the first cohort at the DLGS was demographic change and its effects on spatial development and on the economy and society. This takes up lines of research in all three participating institutions, at the TU Dresden in particular in the work done by the Centre for Demographic Change (ZDW). The present work is a dissertation from the first cohort of the DLGS. Others will follow.
Dresden, October 2011
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Bernhard Müller Spokesman of the DLGS


Abstract
The majority of local areas in the UK are faced with an ageing population. Popular retirement destinations in coastal and more rural areas are particularly affected. The thesis aims to find out how local areas strategically tackle these demographic shifts. The British government has issued strategic guidance for local areas, but as yet little is known about how actual responses look. The literature has largely focused on good practice compila­tions. Consequently, the thesis attempts to analyse in depth local areas’ experiences in planning for an ageing population. The main research question is: How do local actors in the UK plan for population ageing?
A grounded theory approach has been chosen to develop theoretical concepts from empirical data. Local governance and collective learning are used as sensitising concepts,
i.e. wider theoretical perspectives. Due to the state of research and the aim to gather detailed knowledge regarding the planning for an ageing population in local areas, a qualitative research design has been chosen. More precisely, it is a multiple case study design, covering the three heterogeneous cases North Tyneside, Poole and Wealden. Empirical data has been assembled from qualitative interviews with local experts and documents such as local strategies or minutes of meetings.
The results are threefold. Firstly, local governance arrangements are analysed. This co­vers the identification of involved actors, their action orientations and interactions. As approaches in planning for an ageing population differ across organisations, a typology of individual actors is developed. Moreover, it is observed that and analysed how traditi­onal hierarchical steering by public bodies is complemented by more network-like forms of governance, for example multi-organisational older people’s partnerships. Secondly, local learning processes in planning for an ageing population are reconstructed. Four phases are differentiated: setting the agenda for the topic of ageing and older people followed by building up knowledge on the subject and collective learning in a narrower sense and, finally, strategy-making. Interrelations between governance arrangements and collective learning are analysed, particularly with respect to different forms of lear­ning in different types of older people’s partnerships.
Finally, central challenges and perspectives arising from the analysis of governance arrangements and learning processes are discussed. On the one hand, these pertain to the cross-cutting nature of ageing, on the other hand they are due to the ambivalent influence from national government on local areas. Ageing affects various spheres of local steering activity. Among the main implications for local areas in the UK are the continuous search for responsibility and the struggle to broaden the agenda beyond health and care. This has led to experimenting with governance structures, intensifying involvement of older people and developing inter-agency older people strategies and others as catalysts for further development. The strong influence from central govern­ment on local steering advances local reactions to ageing but provokes superficial and unsustainable answers at the same time.

Overall, the thesis provides in-depth empirical knowledge on local planning for an ageing population. The theoretical lenses local governance and collective learning have been used to generalise from the practical experiences in the three case study areas. The thesis concludes with recommendations for practitioners locally and at the national level. These refer inter alia to local governance arrangements which come up to the issue’s cross-cuttingness and to national guidance and regulation which could facilitate their introduction or modification.

Kurzfassung
Die Mehrzahl britischer Gemeinden ist mit einer alternden Bevölkerung konfrontiert. Küstengebiete und ländliche Räume sind besonders betroffen, da sie als Altersruhesitz bevorzugt werden. Ziel der Dissertation ist es, den strategischen Umgang der Gemein­den mit diesen demographischen Veränderungen zu beleuchten. Die britische National­regierung gibt den Gemeinden strategische Leitlinien vor, allerdings ist wenig darüber bekannt, wie die lokalen Ansätze tatsächlich aussehen. Bisher wurden vor allem Good Practice Sammlungen zum Thema veröffentlicht. Vor diesem Hintergrund beschäftigt sich die Dissertation detailliert mit der Stadtentwicklung für eine alternde Bevölkerung in solchen Gemeinden, die in sich zwar mit der Bevölkerungsalterung beschäftigen, aber nicht als Good Practice klassifiziert werden können. Die Hauptforschungsfrage ist: Wie planen lokale Akteure für eine alternde Bevölkerung?
Die Arbeit folgt einem Grounded Theory Ansatz, der darauf zielt, theoretische Konzepte aus den empirischen Daten zu entwickeln. Lokale Governance und kollektives Lernen dienen als sensibilisierende Konzepte, d.h. weitergefasste theoretische Perspektiven. Aufgrund des Forschungsstandes und des Ziels, detailliertes Wissen über die Stadtent­wicklung für eine alternde Bevölkerung zu gewinnen, folgt die Arbeit einem qualitativen Forschungsdesign. In den drei heterogenen Fallstudiengemeinden North Tyneside, Poo­le und Wealden wurden insbesondere qualitative Interviews mit lokalen Experten durchgeführt und Dokumente wie Strategiepapiere und Sitzungsprotokolle ausgewertet.
Die Ergebnisse umfassen drei Themenbereiche. Zunächst werden lokale Governanceformen analysiert, was die Identifikation der beteiligten Akteure, ihre Handlungsorientierungen und Interaktionen umfasst. Da Ansätze zum Umgang mit der alternden Bevölkerung sich stark zwischen individuellen Akteuren unterscheiden, wurde auf dieser Basis eine Akteurstypologie erstellt. Darüber hinaus wird analysiert wie traditionale Steuerungsansätze staatlicher Akteure durch netzwerkartige Governanceformen ergänzt werden. Bedeutendstes Beispiel sind Arbeitsgruppen, in denen Akteure verschiedener Organisationen und Sektoren zusammenkommen, um Ansätze zum Umgang mit Seni­oren und der Bevölkerungsalterung zu entwickeln.
Anschließend werden lokale Lernprozesse in der Planung für eine alternde Bevölkerung rekonstruiert. Dabei werden vier Phasen unterschieden: Agenda-Setting, Wissensauf­bau, kollektives Lernen im engeren Sinne und Strategieerstellung. Es werden die Wech­selwirkungen zwischen Governanceformen und kollektivem Lernen analysiert, insbe­sondere bezüglich der Lernformen in verschiedenen Typen von Arbeitsgruppen.
Schließlich werden Herausforderungen und Perspektiven der Stadtentwicklung für eine alternde Bevölkerung diskutiert, die aus der Analyse von Governanceformen und Lernprozessen hervorgehen. Einerseits beziehen diese sich auf den Querschnittcharakter des Themas Alterung, andererseits auf den ambivalenten Einfluss der Nationalregierung.

Contents
Figures and tables.......11 List of Abbreviations...13
1 Introduction..........15
1.1 Rationale and aims of the research ... 15
1.2 Study design .................. 18
1.3 Thesis structure .............. 20
2 Planning for an ageing population – a UK-wide overview...............23
2.1 The UK’s ageing population .............. 23
2.2 Local governance and planning in transition......... 30
2.3 Reactions to ageing in the UK ........... 38
2.4 Questions raised ............ 46
3 Conceptual framework............ 49
3.1     Local planning for an ageing population – linked to various research areas................49
3.2     Grounded theory perspective............ 53
3.3     Sensitising concepts.......55
3.3.1     Local governance .....56
3.3.2     Collective learning....62
3.4 Presuppositions guiding the analysis ..67
4 Research design and methods .71
4.1 Overall research design...71
4.2 Exploratory interviews – national level ..................74
4.3 Sampling procedures ......75
4.3.1     Sampling of case study areas.......76
4.3.2     Sampling of interviewees.............79
4.4 Data collection................81
4.5 Data analysis ..................83
5 The case study areas................89
5.1 North Tyneside ...............90
5.1.1 North Tyneside in profile .............90
5.1.2 Planning for an ageing population in North Tyneside ........91
5.2 Poole...........94
5.2.1 Poole in profile.........94
5.2.2 Planning for an ageing population in Poole ....96
5.3 Wealden/East Sussex......98
5.3.1 Wealden/East Sussex in profile....98
5.3.2 Planning for an ageing population in Wealden/East Sussex ................100
5.4 Summary and arising questions........103
6 Local governance and planning for an ageing population...............105
6.1 The involved actors.......105
6.1.1 Actors belonging to the public sector ...........106
6.1.2 Actors belonging to the private sector..........116
6.1.3 Actors belonging to the voluntary and community sector117
6.1.4 Connecting the sectors: The Local Strategic Partnership ..122
6.2 A typology of actors .....125
6.3 Governance arrangements: from working in silos to partnerships..............130
6.4 Summary...139
7 Local learning processes in planning for an ageing population ......141
7.1 Setting the ageing agenda...............143
7.1.1 Awareness of the ageing population ............143
7.1.2 From awareness to action..........146
7.2 Building up knowledge of ageing.....149
7.2.1 Basing planning on (demographic) evidence.149
7.2.2 Older people’s participation.......155
7.2.3 Reacting to stimuli from national government.................158
7.3 Collective learning to plan for an ageing population ..............160
7.3.1     Collective learning in the local area ..............160
7.3.2     Learning in older people’s partnerships.........164
7.4 Strategy-making for an ageing population..........171
7.4.1     Local strategies for dealing with population ageing .........171
7.4.2     National trends reflected in local strategies...178
7.4.3     The functions of strategies and strategy-making .............187
7.5 Summary...191
8 Central challenges and perspectives in planning for an ageing population .......193
8.1 The cross-cutting nature of ageing ..193
8.1.1     Searching for responsibility........194
8.1.2     Struggling to broaden the agenda................195
8.1.3     Experimenting with governance structures ...196
8.1.4     Involving older people...............197
8.1.5     Using strategies as catalysts.......198
8.2 Ambivalent influence from national government 199
8.2.1     Influence via funding, instruments, targets and supervision................200
8.2.2     Skipping the regional level.........203
8.2.3     National government stimulating local areas to plan for an ageing population ..204
8.2.4     Local areas’ superficial reactions to national government influence.....205
8.3 Regional and local challenges and perspectives...207
9 Discussion of the results and implications209
9.1     Summary of results.......209
9.2     Reflection of the results and the research design with respect to the state of research.213
9.2.1     Discussion of the results ............214
9.2.2     Discussion of the research design .................217
9.3 Open questions and need for further research....219
9.4 Recommended action...221
9.5 Looking beyond the UK228 Literature..................231 Appendix..................251
A Interviewees and their positions ................251
B Exemplary e-mail to get into contact with potential interviewee and
accompanying project outline.252
C Interview guideline.................254
D Transcription rules according to GAT 2 (modified) ........259

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